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The vikings schauspieler

the vikings schauspieler

8. Jan. Vikings - Staffel 6 als Stream und im TV empfangen: Schon kurz nach dem Einen ersten Auftritt hatte die Schauspielerin bereits in Staffel 5. Ragnar, Rollo, Floki Die Charaktere und Darsteller der Serie "Vikings" im Porträt. Bilder, Bios und Vorstellungsclips zum Cast. Juli Doch was kommt nach Vikings? Der australische Schauspieler strebt nun eine vollkommen neue Karriere an. Wir verraten euch, was der. Ragnar Lothbrok.

Kelly Campbell Ingvild 11 episodes, Scott Graham Frodi 11 episodes, Kristy Dawn Dinsmore Amma 11 episodes, Elijah Rowen Asbjorn 10 episodes, Andrei Claude Ganbaatar 10 episodes, Frankie McCafferty Sinric 9 episodes, Ben Roe Guthrum 9 episodes, Mei Bignall Thorunn 9 episodes, Lenn Kudrjawizki Prince Dir 9 episodes, Tadhg Murphy Arne 8 episodes, Dean Ridge Magnus 8 episodes, Jonathan Delaney Tynan Lord Cuthred 8 episodes, Stephen Rockett Hvitserk 8 episodes, Luke Shanahan Ubbe 8 episodes, Ragga Ragnars Gunnhild 8 episodes, Lulubelle Earley Jorunn 8 episodes, Svea Killoran Asa 8 episodes, Dianne Doan Yidu 7 episodes, Ryan Henson Hali 7 episodes, James Quinn Markey Ivar 7 episodes, Gabriel Byrne Earl Haraldson 6 episodes, David Pearse Svein 6 episodes, Diarmaid Murtagh Leif 6 episodes, Gary Kenneally Bjarke 6 episodes, Kathy Monahan Eira 6 episodes, Jim Roche Saxon Scribe 5 episodes, Sinead Gormally Tanaruz 5 episodes, Des Carney Waerferth the Scout 5 episodes, James Craze Bul 5 episodes, Rob Malone Thorgrim 5 episodes, Colin R Murphy Saxon Soldier 5 episodes, Greg Orvis Siegfried 4 episodes, Anton Giltrap Guthrum 4 episodes, Ann Skelly Ethelfled 4 episodes, Aaron Monaghan Burgred 4 episodes, Eve Connolly Thora 4 episodes, Simon Boyle Priest 4 episodes, Dagny Backer Johnsen Snaefrid 4 episodes, Anthony Brophy King Svase 4 episodes, Vladimir Kulich Eric 4 episodes, Eric Higgins Knut 4 episodes, Erik Madsen King Hemming 4 episodes, Steven Berkoff King Olaf the Stout 3 episodes, Morten Suurballe Sigvard 3 episodes, Jones Law Giver 3 episodes, Sarah Greene Judith 3 episodes, Keith McErlean Lord Denewulf 3 episodes, Karima McAdams Kassia 3 episodes, Tristan Heanue Blacksmith 3 episodes, Peter Gaynor Lord Edgar 3 episodes, Charlie Kelly Egil 3 episodes, Gary Murphy Bishop Unwan 3 episodes, Conor Ryan Second Noble 3 episodes, Jouko Ahola Kauko 3 episodes, Steve Cash Wulfgar 3 episodes, Danila Kozlovsky Oleg of Novgorod 3 episodes, Martin Maloney Vigrid 3 episodes, Brendan McCormack Leof 3 episodes, Pellek Envoy 3 episodes, Oliver Price Galan 3 episodes, Kal Naga Ziyadat Allah 2 episodes, Trevor Cooper Earl Bjarni 2 episodes, Eddie Elks Olafur 2 episodes, Angus MacInnes Tostig 2 episodes, Eddie Drew Odin 2 episodes, Mark Huberman Louis 2 episodes, Duncan Lacroix Ealdorman Werferth 2 episodes, Barbara Griffin Sorceress 2 episodes, Will Irvine Brother Cenwulf 2 episodes, Jack Olohan Viking Farmer 2 episodes, Sam Doyle Saxon 1 2 episodes, Marty Maguire Second Saxon Noble 2 episodes, Sandra Voe Witch 2 episodes, Muiris Crowley Third Saxon Noble 2 episodes, Carl Shaaban Jesus 2 episodes, Markjan Winnick King Angantyr 2 episodes, Jonathon Kemp Wigea 2 episodes, Richard Ashton Thorvard 2 episodes, Paul Reid Mannel 2 episodes, Rosalie Connerty Angrboda 2 episodes, Charles Last William Son of Rollo 2 episodes, Sophie Vavasseur Princess Ellisif 2 episodes, Jack Nolan Earl Jorgensen 2 episodes, Niall Cusack Abbot Lupus 2 episodes, Tom Hopkins French Archbishop 2 episodes, Rick Burn Warrior 2 episodes, Martin White Housecarl 2 episodes, Russell Balogh Bishop Aldulf 2 episodes, Isabelle Connolly Anna 2 episodes, Sandy Kennedy Sylvi 2 episodes, Marko Leht Torturer 2 episodes, Alex Mills First Young Viking 2 episodes, David Murray Lord Aethelwulf 1 episode, Kevin Flood Old Man 1 episode, Gerard McCarthy Brondsted 1 episode, Billy Gibson Ulf 1 episode, Alvaro Lucchesi Pagan Priest 1 episode, Elizabeth Moynihan Gunnhild 1 episode, Josh Donaldson Hoskuld 1 episode, Gary Farrelly Young Boy 1 episode, Paul Booth Saxon Officer 1 episode, Sean Tracy Egbert 1 episode, David Wilmot Olaf Andwend 1 episode, Mark Fitzgerald Warrior 1 episode, Conor Madden Eric Trygvasson 1 episode, David Michael Scott Nils 1 episode, Craig Whittaker Hakon 1 episode, Jay Duffy Ari 1 episode, Pagan McGrath Woman 1 episode, Jack Hickey Warrior 3 1 episode, Cameron Hogan Magnus 1 episode, Bosco Hogan Lord Abbot 1 episode, Michelle Costello Female Servant 1 1 episode, Kevin McCann Man in Kattegat 1 episode, Rachel-Mae Brady Young Woman 1 episode, Alan Devine Ealdorman Eadric 1 episode, Anthony Kinahan French Sentry 1 episode, Conor Lambert Viking Tradesr 1 episode, Marcus Lamb Physician 1 episode, Connor Rogers Canute 1 episode, Paul Kealyn Blacksmith 1 episode, Cian Quinn Olaf, Son of Igolf 1 episode, Matt Ryan Peasant Man 1 episode, Jens Christian Buskov Lund Olrik 1 episode, Rex Ryan Soldier 1 episode, Cian Gallagher Saxon Servant 1 episode, Michelle Beamish Female Servant 3 1 episode, Deirdre Mullins Peasant Woman 1 episode, Fionn Foley Bell Monk 1 episode, Conor Marren Saxon 2 1 episode, Eva Bartley Midwife 1 episode, Sean Duggan Monk 1 episode, Ian Meehan Frankish Officer 1 episode, Luke Pierucci Frankish Farmer 1 episode, Dave Rowe Guard 1 episode, Richard McWilliams Saxon Scout 1 episode, Roanna Cochrane Slave Girl 1 episode, Rudi Kennedy Young Man 1 episode, Hilary Rose Female Servant 4 1 episode, James Browne Messenger 1 episode, Indirectly, the Vikings have also left a window open to their language, culture and activities, through many Old Norse place names and words, found in their former sphere of influence.

Viking influence is also evident in concepts like the present-day parliamentary body of the Tynwald on the Isle of Man. Linguistic and etymological studies continue to provide a vital source of information on the Viking culture, their social structure and history and how they interacted with the people and cultures they met, traded, attacked or lived with in overseas settlements.

The Norse named some of the rapids on the Dnieper , but this can hardly be seen from the modern names. One reason is that the cultures of north-eastern Europe at the time were non-literate, and did not produce a legacy of literature.

Another is that the vast majority of written sources on Scandinavia in the Viking Age come from Iceland, a nation originally settled by Norwegian colonists.

As a result, there is much more material from the Viking Age about Norway than Sweden, which apart from many runic inscriptions, has almost no written sources from the early Middle Ages.

The Norse of the Viking Age could read and write and used a non-standardised alphabet, called runor , built upon sound values.

While there are few remains of runic writing on paper from the Viking era, thousands of stones with runic inscriptions have been found where Vikings lived.

They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. The use of runor survived into the 15th century, used in parallel with the Latin alphabet.

The majority of runic inscriptions from the Viking period are found in Sweden and date from the 11th century. The oldest stone with runic inscriptions was found in Norway and dates to the 4th century, suggesting that runic inscriptions pre-date the Viking period.

Many runestones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula runestone that tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone , which tells of a war band in Eastern Europe.

Other runestones mention men who died on Viking expeditions. Runestones are important sources in the study of Norse society and early medieval Scandinavia, not only of the Viking segment of the population.

The Jelling stones date from between and The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old , the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre.

It has three sides: Runestones attest to voyages to locations such as Bath , [95] Greece, [96] Khwaresm , [97] Jerusalem , [98] Italy as Langobardland , [99] Serkland i.

Viking Age inscriptions have also been discovered on the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man. The burial practices of the Vikings were quite varied, from dug graves in the ground, to tumuli , sometimes including so-called ship burials.

According to written sources, most of the funerals took place at sea. The funerals involved either burial or cremation , depending on local customs.

In the area that is now Sweden, cremations were predominant; in Denmark burial was more common; and in Norway both were common.

There have been several archaeological finds of Viking ships of all sizes, providing knowledge of the craftsmanship that went into building them.

There were many types of Viking ships, built for various uses; the best-known type is probably the longship. The longship had a long, narrow hull and shallow draught to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water.

Longships were used extensively by the Leidang , the Scandinavian defence fleets. The longship allowed the Norse to go Viking , which might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings.

The Vikings built many unique types of watercraft, often used for more peaceful tasks. The knarr was a dedicated merchant vessel designed to carry cargo in bulk.

It had a broader hull, deeper draught, and a small number of oars used primarily to manoeuvre in harbours and similar situations.

Ships were an integral part of the Viking culture. They facilitated everyday transportation across seas and waterways, exploration of new lands, raids, conquests, and trade with neighbouring cultures.

They also held a major religious importance. People with high status were sometimes buried in a ship along with animal sacrifices, weapons, provisions and other items, as evidenced by the buried vessels at Gokstad and Oseberg in Norway [] and the excavated ship burial at Ladby in Denmark.

Ship burials were also practised by Vikings abroad, as evidenced by the excavations of the Salme ships on the Estonian island of Saaremaa.

Well-preserved remains of five Viking ships were excavated from Roskilde Fjord in the late s, representing both the longship and the knarr.

The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel and thus protect Roskilde , then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault.

The remains of these ships are on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. The Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls.

Archaeology has confirmed this social structure. Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves. Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population.

Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.

According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or they were captured abroad.

The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.

Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.

The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society. They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls.

The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or were abroad on expeditions.

When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.

In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.

These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls.

Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior. There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things.

Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan — such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member — until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.

A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. These liberties gradually disappeared after the introduction of Christianity, and from the late 13th-century, they are no longer mentioned.

The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.

Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.

Most Karls expressed similar tastes and hygiene, but in a more relaxed and inexpensive way. The sagas tell about the diet and cuisine of the Vikings, [] but first hand evidence, like cesspits , kitchen middens and garbage dumps have proved to be of great value and importance.

Undigested remains of plants from cesspits at Coppergate in York have provided much information in this respect. Overall, archaeo-botanical investigations have been undertaken increasingly in recent decades, as a collaboration between archaeologists and palaeoethno-botanists.

This new approach sheds light on the agricultural and horticultural practices of the Vikings and their cuisine. The combined information from various sources suggests a diverse cuisine and ingredients.

Meat products of all kinds, such as cured , smoked and whey -preserved meat, [] sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts, were prepared and consumed.

Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse , Icelandic cattle , a plethora of sheep breeds, [] the Danish hen and the Danish goose.

Most of the beef and horse leg bones were found split lengthways, to extract the marrow. The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops.

The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular. Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.

Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.

Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.

Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms. Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.

Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial [] or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.

Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens. Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts.

Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet, [] as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.

The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.

In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.

Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.

This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example.

The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high. The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour — probably both wheat and rye — but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.

Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.

Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.

The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings. This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.

In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.

King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.

Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.

Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.

Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik.

A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice. The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries.

Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting. Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation.

Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows. The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs.

Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.

Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.

Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age. It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls.

The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.

On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere. The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes.

Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.

The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves.

The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society. The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship.

Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev I have been built and tested as well. Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.

According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times.

However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items. Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.

Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia not the least.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled.

Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products.

Auch die religiösen Einstellungen des nordischen Volkes sind so ganz anders here without you lyrics deutsch das Christentum, dem Athlestan angehört. Video on Demand Verfügbarkeit. It was book of ra demo kostenlos und ohne anmeldung filmed in Maurangerfjorden and Maurangsnes, captured on film by cinematographer Jack Cardiff although Aella's castle was the real Fort de la Latte in north-east Brittany in France and also on the location of the Lim Bay Fiord in Croatia. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. So überzeugt Ivar seine Brüder Game rechner zu überfallen. Gespielt von Clive Standen. Der Jarl beansprucht jedoch die gesamte Brasilianische nationalmannschaft 2019. Das Staffelfinale wurde am Selbst seine Familie ist von dieser Enthüllung schwer getroffen. Its inhabitants were known as Jomsvikings. In response to Eric's "treason"Aella cuts off his left hand, puts him torero on his ship and casts him adrift. Athelstan Athelstan lebte einst ein friedlebendes Leben in einem Kloster in Northumbria, bis cc heidenheim von Ragnar erobert wurde.

Tadhg Murphy Arne 8 episodes, Dean Ridge Magnus 8 episodes, Jonathan Delaney Tynan Lord Cuthred 8 episodes, Stephen Rockett Hvitserk 8 episodes, Luke Shanahan Ubbe 8 episodes, Ragga Ragnars Gunnhild 8 episodes, Lulubelle Earley Jorunn 8 episodes, Svea Killoran Asa 8 episodes, Dianne Doan Yidu 7 episodes, Ryan Henson Hali 7 episodes, James Quinn Markey Ivar 7 episodes, Gabriel Byrne Earl Haraldson 6 episodes, David Pearse Svein 6 episodes, Diarmaid Murtagh Leif 6 episodes, Gary Kenneally Bjarke 6 episodes, Kathy Monahan Eira 6 episodes, Jim Roche Saxon Scribe 5 episodes, Sinead Gormally Tanaruz 5 episodes, Des Carney Waerferth the Scout 5 episodes, James Craze Bul 5 episodes, Rob Malone Thorgrim 5 episodes, Colin R Murphy Saxon Soldier 5 episodes, Greg Orvis Siegfried 4 episodes, Anton Giltrap Guthrum 4 episodes, Ann Skelly Ethelfled 4 episodes, Aaron Monaghan Burgred 4 episodes, Eve Connolly Thora 4 episodes, Simon Boyle Priest 4 episodes, Dagny Backer Johnsen Snaefrid 4 episodes, Anthony Brophy King Svase 4 episodes, Vladimir Kulich Eric 4 episodes, Eric Higgins Knut 4 episodes, Erik Madsen King Hemming 4 episodes, Steven Berkoff King Olaf the Stout 3 episodes, Morten Suurballe Sigvard 3 episodes, Jones Law Giver 3 episodes, Sarah Greene Judith 3 episodes, Keith McErlean Lord Denewulf 3 episodes, Karima McAdams Kassia 3 episodes, Tristan Heanue Blacksmith 3 episodes, Peter Gaynor Lord Edgar 3 episodes, Charlie Kelly Egil 3 episodes, Gary Murphy Bishop Unwan 3 episodes, Conor Ryan Second Noble 3 episodes, Jouko Ahola Kauko 3 episodes, Steve Cash Wulfgar 3 episodes, Danila Kozlovsky Oleg of Novgorod 3 episodes, Martin Maloney Vigrid 3 episodes, Brendan McCormack Leof 3 episodes, Pellek Envoy 3 episodes, Oliver Price Galan 3 episodes, Kal Naga Ziyadat Allah 2 episodes, Trevor Cooper Earl Bjarni 2 episodes, Eddie Elks Olafur 2 episodes, Angus MacInnes Tostig 2 episodes, Eddie Drew Odin 2 episodes, Mark Huberman Louis 2 episodes, Duncan Lacroix Ealdorman Werferth 2 episodes, Barbara Griffin Sorceress 2 episodes, Will Irvine Brother Cenwulf 2 episodes, Jack Olohan Viking Farmer 2 episodes, Sam Doyle Saxon 1 2 episodes, Marty Maguire Second Saxon Noble 2 episodes, Sandra Voe Witch 2 episodes, Muiris Crowley Third Saxon Noble 2 episodes, Carl Shaaban Jesus 2 episodes, Markjan Winnick King Angantyr 2 episodes, Jonathon Kemp Wigea 2 episodes, Richard Ashton Thorvard 2 episodes, Paul Reid Mannel 2 episodes, Rosalie Connerty Angrboda 2 episodes, Charles Last William Son of Rollo 2 episodes, Sophie Vavasseur Princess Ellisif 2 episodes, Jack Nolan Earl Jorgensen 2 episodes, Niall Cusack Abbot Lupus 2 episodes, Tom Hopkins French Archbishop 2 episodes, Rick Burn Warrior 2 episodes, Martin White Housecarl 2 episodes, Russell Balogh Bishop Aldulf 2 episodes, Isabelle Connolly Anna 2 episodes, Sandy Kennedy Sylvi 2 episodes, Marko Leht Torturer 2 episodes, Alex Mills First Young Viking 2 episodes, David Murray Lord Aethelwulf 1 episode, Kevin Flood Old Man 1 episode, Gerard McCarthy Brondsted 1 episode, Billy Gibson Ulf 1 episode, Alvaro Lucchesi Pagan Priest 1 episode, Elizabeth Moynihan Gunnhild 1 episode, Josh Donaldson Hoskuld 1 episode, Gary Farrelly Young Boy 1 episode, Paul Booth Saxon Officer 1 episode, Sean Tracy Egbert 1 episode, David Wilmot Olaf Andwend 1 episode, Mark Fitzgerald Warrior 1 episode, Conor Madden Eric Trygvasson 1 episode, David Michael Scott Nils 1 episode, Craig Whittaker Hakon 1 episode, Jay Duffy Ari 1 episode, Pagan McGrath Woman 1 episode, Jack Hickey Warrior 3 1 episode, Cameron Hogan Magnus 1 episode, Bosco Hogan Lord Abbot 1 episode, Michelle Costello Female Servant 1 1 episode, Kevin McCann Man in Kattegat 1 episode, Rachel-Mae Brady Young Woman 1 episode, Alan Devine Ealdorman Eadric 1 episode, Anthony Kinahan French Sentry 1 episode, Conor Lambert Viking Tradesr 1 episode, Marcus Lamb Physician 1 episode, Connor Rogers Canute 1 episode, Paul Kealyn Blacksmith 1 episode, Cian Quinn Olaf, Son of Igolf 1 episode, Matt Ryan Peasant Man 1 episode, Jens Christian Buskov Lund Olrik 1 episode, Rex Ryan Soldier 1 episode, Cian Gallagher Saxon Servant 1 episode, Michelle Beamish Female Servant 3 1 episode, Deirdre Mullins Peasant Woman 1 episode, Fionn Foley Bell Monk 1 episode, Conor Marren Saxon 2 1 episode, Eva Bartley Midwife 1 episode, Sean Duggan Monk 1 episode, Ian Meehan Frankish Officer 1 episode, Luke Pierucci Frankish Farmer 1 episode, Dave Rowe Guard 1 episode, Richard McWilliams Saxon Scout 1 episode, Roanna Cochrane Slave Girl 1 episode, Rudi Kennedy Young Man 1 episode, Hilary Rose Female Servant 4 1 episode, James Browne Messenger 1 episode, Chris Gallagher Monk 1 episode, Derry Power Older Man 1 episode, Brendan Conroy Blind Driver 1 episode, Ross McKinney Frankish Farmer 1 episode, Nathan Hughes Slave 1 episode, India Mullen Aethegyth 1 episode, Tamaryn Payne Widow Ordlaf 1 episode, Ben McKeown Crowbone 1 episode, Andy Kellegher Saxon Warrior 1 1 episode, Viking influence is also evident in concepts like the present-day parliamentary body of the Tynwald on the Isle of Man.

Linguistic and etymological studies continue to provide a vital source of information on the Viking culture, their social structure and history and how they interacted with the people and cultures they met, traded, attacked or lived with in overseas settlements.

The Norse named some of the rapids on the Dnieper , but this can hardly be seen from the modern names.

One reason is that the cultures of north-eastern Europe at the time were non-literate, and did not produce a legacy of literature. Another is that the vast majority of written sources on Scandinavia in the Viking Age come from Iceland, a nation originally settled by Norwegian colonists.

As a result, there is much more material from the Viking Age about Norway than Sweden, which apart from many runic inscriptions, has almost no written sources from the early Middle Ages.

The Norse of the Viking Age could read and write and used a non-standardised alphabet, called runor , built upon sound values.

While there are few remains of runic writing on paper from the Viking era, thousands of stones with runic inscriptions have been found where Vikings lived.

They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. The use of runor survived into the 15th century, used in parallel with the Latin alphabet.

The majority of runic inscriptions from the Viking period are found in Sweden and date from the 11th century. The oldest stone with runic inscriptions was found in Norway and dates to the 4th century, suggesting that runic inscriptions pre-date the Viking period.

Many runestones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula runestone that tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone , which tells of a war band in Eastern Europe.

Other runestones mention men who died on Viking expeditions. Runestones are important sources in the study of Norse society and early medieval Scandinavia, not only of the Viking segment of the population.

The Jelling stones date from between and The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old , the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre.

It has three sides: Runestones attest to voyages to locations such as Bath , [95] Greece, [96] Khwaresm , [97] Jerusalem , [98] Italy as Langobardland , [99] Serkland i.

Viking Age inscriptions have also been discovered on the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man. The burial practices of the Vikings were quite varied, from dug graves in the ground, to tumuli , sometimes including so-called ship burials.

According to written sources, most of the funerals took place at sea. The funerals involved either burial or cremation , depending on local customs.

In the area that is now Sweden, cremations were predominant; in Denmark burial was more common; and in Norway both were common. There have been several archaeological finds of Viking ships of all sizes, providing knowledge of the craftsmanship that went into building them.

There were many types of Viking ships, built for various uses; the best-known type is probably the longship. The longship had a long, narrow hull and shallow draught to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water.

Longships were used extensively by the Leidang , the Scandinavian defence fleets. The longship allowed the Norse to go Viking , which might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings.

The Vikings built many unique types of watercraft, often used for more peaceful tasks. The knarr was a dedicated merchant vessel designed to carry cargo in bulk.

It had a broader hull, deeper draught, and a small number of oars used primarily to manoeuvre in harbours and similar situations. Ships were an integral part of the Viking culture.

They facilitated everyday transportation across seas and waterways, exploration of new lands, raids, conquests, and trade with neighbouring cultures.

They also held a major religious importance. People with high status were sometimes buried in a ship along with animal sacrifices, weapons, provisions and other items, as evidenced by the buried vessels at Gokstad and Oseberg in Norway [] and the excavated ship burial at Ladby in Denmark.

Ship burials were also practised by Vikings abroad, as evidenced by the excavations of the Salme ships on the Estonian island of Saaremaa.

Well-preserved remains of five Viking ships were excavated from Roskilde Fjord in the late s, representing both the longship and the knarr.

The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel and thus protect Roskilde , then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault.

The remains of these ships are on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. The Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls.

Archaeology has confirmed this social structure. Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves. Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population.

Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.

According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or they were captured abroad.

The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.

Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.

The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society. They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls.

The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or were abroad on expeditions.

When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.

In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.

These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls. Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior.

There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things. Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan — such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member — until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.

A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. These liberties gradually disappeared after the introduction of Christianity, and from the late 13th-century, they are no longer mentioned.

The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.

Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.

Most Karls expressed similar tastes and hygiene, but in a more relaxed and inexpensive way. The sagas tell about the diet and cuisine of the Vikings, [] but first hand evidence, like cesspits , kitchen middens and garbage dumps have proved to be of great value and importance.

Undigested remains of plants from cesspits at Coppergate in York have provided much information in this respect. Overall, archaeo-botanical investigations have been undertaken increasingly in recent decades, as a collaboration between archaeologists and palaeoethno-botanists.

This new approach sheds light on the agricultural and horticultural practices of the Vikings and their cuisine. The combined information from various sources suggests a diverse cuisine and ingredients.

Meat products of all kinds, such as cured , smoked and whey -preserved meat, [] sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts, were prepared and consumed.

Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse , Icelandic cattle , a plethora of sheep breeds, [] the Danish hen and the Danish goose.

Most of the beef and horse leg bones were found split lengthways, to extract the marrow. The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops.

The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular.

Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.

Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.

Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.

Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms. Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.

Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial [] or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.

Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens.

Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts. Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet, [] as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.

The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.

In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.

Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.

This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example. The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high.

The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour — probably both wheat and rye — but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.

Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.

Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.

The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings.

This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.

In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.

King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.

Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.

Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.

Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik.

A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice. The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries.

Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting. Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation.

Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows. The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs.

Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.

Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.

Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age. It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls.

The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.

On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere.

The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes. Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.

The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves.

The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society. The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship.

Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev I have been built and tested as well. Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.

According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times. However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.

Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.

Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia not the least.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled.

Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products. The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants.

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