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Russland (russisch Россия [rɐˈsʲijə] Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel Aussprache, Transkription . Russland ist in elf Zeitzonen eingeteilt (von UTC+2 bis UTC+12), wobei mit der Abschaffung der Zeitumstellung im Jahr bis überall. Nachrichten, Artikel, Fernseh- und Radio-Beiträge zu Russlands Team bei der UEFA EURO Audios, Videos, Bilder sowie Russlands EM-Kader und. Nov. Die russische Fußballnationalmannschaft tritt zum fünften Mal nacheinander die Reise zu einer EM-Endrunde an. Nur überstand die.

Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers.

Russian is also the third most widespread language on the Internet after English and German , respectively. Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds.

Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels.

Russian is an East Slavic language of the wider Indo-European family. From the point of view of spoken language , its closest relatives are Ukrainian , Belarusian , and Rusyn , [37] the other three languages in the East Slavic languages.

In many places in eastern and southern Ukraine and throughout Belarus , these languages are spoken interchangeably, and in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixtures such as Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine and Trasianka in Belarus.

An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect , although vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian.

Also Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic influence on both languages, as well as because of later interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, although Bulgarian grammar differs markedly from Russian.

The vocabulary mainly abstract and literary words , principles of word formations, and, to some extent, inflections and literary style of Russian have been also influenced by Church Slavonic , a developed and partly russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church.

However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline.

In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with many different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language.

Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek , Latin , Polish , Dutch , German , French , Italian and English , [39] and to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic , Turkic , [40] [41] Persian , [42] [43] and Arabic , as well as Hebrew.

According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California , Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring approximately 1, hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency.

The standard form of Russian is generally regarded as the modern Russian literary language современный русский литературный язык.

By the midth century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the compulsory education system that was established by the Soviet government.

In , there were Therefore, the Russian language is the 8th largest in the world by number of speakers , after English, Mandarin, Hindi-Urdu, Spanish, Arabic and Portuguese.

Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Education in Russian is still a popular choice for both Russian as a second language RSL and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics.

Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics. In Estonia , Russian is spoken by In Latvia , Russian is officially considered a foreign language.

In Lithuania , Russian is not official, but it still retains the function of a lingua franca. In Moldova , Russian is considered to be the language of inter-ethnic communication under a Soviet-era law.

According to the census in Russia , Russian language skills were indicated by million people In Ukraine , Russian is seen as a language of inter-ethnic communication, and a minority language, under the Constitution of Ukraine.

In the 20th century, Russian was a mandatory language taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact and in other countries that used to be satellites of the USSR.

Significant Russian-speaking groups also exist in Western Europe. These have been fed by several waves of immigrants since the beginning of the 20th century, each with its own flavor of language.

In Armenia , Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

In Azerbaijan , Russian has no official status, but is a lingua franca of the country. In China , Russian has no official status, but it is spoken by the small Russian communities in the Northeastern Heilongjiang province.

In Georgia , Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

In Kazakhstan , Russian is not a state language, but according to article 7 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan its usage enjoys equal status to that of the Kazakh language in state and local administration.

In Kyrgyzstan , Russian is an official language per article 5 of the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan. In Tajikistan , Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication under the Constitution of Tajikistan and is permitted in official documentation.

In Turkmenistan , Russian lost its status as the official lingua franca in In Uzbekistan , Russian is de facto the second official language.

In , Russian was the most widely taught foreign language in Mongolia , [65] and was compulsory in Year 7 onward as a second foreign language in Russian is also spoken in Israel.

The number of native Russian-speaking Israelis numbers around 1. See also Russian language in Israel.

Russian is also spoken as a second language by a small number of people in Afghanistan. The language was first introduced in North America when Russian explorers voyaged into Alaska and claimed it for Russia during the 18th century.

Although most Russian colonists left after the United States bought the land in , a handful stayed and preserved the Russian language in this region to this day, although only a few elderly speakers of this unique dialect are left.

In a number of locations they issue their own newspapers, and live in ethnic enclaves especially the generation of immigrants who started arriving in the early s.

Afterward, the influx from the countries of the former Soviet Union changed the statistics somewhat, with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians immigrating along with some more Russian Jews and Central Asians.

According to the United States Census , in Russian was the primary language spoken in the homes of over , individuals living in the United States.

Russian is one of the official languages or has similar status and interpretation must be provided into Russian of the following:.

The Russian language is also one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station — NASA astronauts who serve alongside Russian cosmonauts usually take Russian language courses.

This practice goes back to the Apollo-Soyuz mission, which first flew in In March it was announced that Russian is now the second-most used language on the Internet after English.

People use the Russian language on 5. Russian is used not only on The websites of former Soviet Union nations also use high levels of Russian: However, Russian is the sixth-most used language on the top 1, sites, behind English , Chinese , French , German and Japanese.

The standard language is used in written and spoken form almost everywhere in the country, from Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the East, notwithstanding the enormous distance in between.

Despite leveling after , especially in matters of vocabulary and phonetics, a number of dialects still exist in Russia.

Some linguists divide the dialects of Russian into two primary regional groupings, "Northern" and "Southern", with Moscow lying on the zone of transition between the two.

Others divide the language into three groupings, Northern , Central or Middle and Southern , with Moscow lying in the Central region.

Dialectology within Russia recognizes dozens of smaller-scale variants. The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary and grammar.

Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language. Among the first to study Russian dialects was Lomonosov in the 18th century.

In the 19th, Vladimir Dal compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary. Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the 20th century.

Russian is written using a Cyrillic alphabet. The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. While these older letters have been abandoned at one time or another, they may be used in this and related articles.

Because of many technical restrictions in computing and also because of the unavailability of Cyrillic keyboards abroad, Russian is often transliterated using the Latin alphabet.

Once commonly used by the majority of those living outside Russia, transliteration is being used less frequently by Russian-speaking typists in favor of the extension of Unicode character encoding , which fully incorporates the Russian alphabet.

The Russian alphabet has many systems of character encoding. KOI8-R was designed by the Soviet government and was intended to serve as the standard encoding.

This encoding was and still is widely used in UNIX-like operating systems. All the obsolete 8-bit encodings are rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF A number of encoding conversion applications were developed.

In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode and thus UTF-8 encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet which is very similar to the Greek alphabet , as well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets.

Russian spelling is reasonably phonemic in practice. It is in fact a balance among phonemics, morphology, etymology, and grammar; and, like that of most living languages, has its share of inconsistencies and controversial points.

A number of rigid spelling rules introduced between the s and s have been responsible for the former whilst trying to eliminate the latter.

The current spelling follows the major reform of , and the final codification of An update proposed in the late s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted.

The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek , was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models.

According to the Institute of Russian Language of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an optional acute accent знак ударения may, and sometimes should, be used to mark stress.

For example, it is used to distinguish between otherwise identical words, especially when context does not make it obvious: Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners.

The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic ; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year The language possesses five vowels or six, under the St.

Petersburg Phonological School , which are written with different letters depending on whether the preceding consonant is palatalized.

The consonants typically come in plain vs. The hard consonants are often velarized , especially before front vowels, as in Irish.

The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa.

The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex, with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to four consecutive sounds.

Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus vowel and C for each consonant, the structure can be described as follows:. Clusters of four consonants are not very common, however, especially within a morpheme.

Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of the consonants. Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant.

Russian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic - inflectional structure, although considerable levelling has taken place.

The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one but continues to preserve characteristic forms. The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features, [ citation needed ] some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language.

The Church Slavonic language was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience.

Firstly with the newly conquered south-western regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania , later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde , for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy.

In terms of actual grammar, there are three tenses in Russian - past, present and future - and each verb has two aspects perfective and imperfective.

Russian nouns each have a gender - either feminine, masculine or neutral, indicated by spelling at the end of the word. Words change depending on both their gender and function in the sentence.

Russian has six cases: See History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian.

The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian , are as follows: The history of Russian language may be divided into the following periods: Judging by the historical records, by approximately AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia , Ukraine and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavs , speaking a closely related group of dialects.

It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language.

Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well.

On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian.

They became distinct since the 13th century, i. The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic , which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age , when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts.

Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts.

Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By , a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes.

Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e. Deportivo Moron — Chacarita 2 February at San Lorenzo — Independiente 2 February at Union Magdalena — La Equidad 2 February at Aves — Braga 2 February at Aurora — Destroyers 2 February at Quilmes — Temperley 2 February at Argentinos Juniors — Belgrano 2 February at Lanus — Colon Santa Fe 2 February at Deportive Cali — Atletico Huila 2 February at America — Queretaro 2 February at Junior — Independiente M 2 February at Cerro Porteno — Deportivo Capiata 2 February at Oriente Petrolero — The Strongest 3 February at 0: Rosario Central — Aldosivi 3 February at 0: Atletico Nacional — Jaguares Cordoba 3 February at 0: Leon — Cruz Azul 3 February at 1: Tigres — Santos L 3 February at 1: Tijuana — Toluca 3 February at 3: Sydney — Melbourne City 3 February at 6: Gabala — Sumqayit 3 February at BB Erzurumspor — Rizespor 3 February at Elazigspor — Giresunspor 3 February at Hatayspor — Denizlispor 3 February at Mallorca — Alcorcon 3 February at Villarreal — Espanyol 3 February at Leixoes — Estoril 3 February at Excelsior — Feyenoord 3 February at Juventus W — Roma Zh 3 February at Estoril — Beira Mar 3 February at Persita — Arema 3 February at Wehen — Hansa Rostock 3 February at Simulcast 3 February at Kiel — Regensburg 3 February at Sandhausen — Bochum 3 February at Aue — Cologne 3 February at Johnstone — Celtic 3 February at Al Faisaly — Al Hazm 3 February at Unterhaching — Cottbus 3 February at Akhisar — Istanbul BB 3 February at Afjet Afyonspor — Adanaspor 3 February at AS Otoho — Berkane 3 February at Enugu Rangers — Salitas 3 February at Gor Mahia — Zamalek 3 February at Mirassol — Guarani 3 February at Laci — Luftetari 3 February at Kamza — Partizani Tirana 3 February at Zwolle — Utrecht 3 February at Bruges — Gent 3 February at Shakhtar Dn — Partizan 3 February at Nimes — Montpellier 3 February at ATK — Jamshedpur 3 February at Winterthur — Rapperswil-Jona 3 February at Crotone — Livorno 3 February at Benevento — Venezia 3 February at Udinese — Fiorentina 3 February at Genoa — Sassuolo 3 February at Apollon Smirnis — Asteras 3 February at Osijek — Hajduk Split 3 February at Leicester City — Manchester Utd 3 February at Karabakh — Neftchi 3 February at Augsburg — Mainz 3 February at Ferreiras — Praiense 3 February at Vasco da Gama Vidigueira — Angrense 3 February at Nacional — Setubal 3 February at Santa Clara — Portimonense 3 February at Braga II — Farense 3 February at Porto II — Penafiel 3 February at Real Oviedo — Cadiz 3 February at Voluntari — Sepsi 3 February at Grasshoppers — Basel 3 February at Luzern — Sion 3 February at Sankt Gallen — Zurich 3 February at Larisa — Atromitos 3 February at Levadiakos — Panathinaikos 3 February at Real Betis — Atletico Madrid 3 February at Den Haag — Heracles 3 February at Saint-Etienne — Strasbourg 3 February at Antalyaspor — Besiktas 3 February at Etoile Sahel — Sfaxien 3 February at Zesco United — Nkana 3 February at Al Hilal — Asante Kotoko 3 February at El Geish — Smouha 3 February at Manchester City — Arsenal 3 February at Standard — Anderlecht 3 February at Stuttgart — Freiburg 3 February at Osasuna — Granada 3 February at Inter Milan — Bologna 3 February at Ohod — Al Ittifaq 3 February at Sporting — Benfica 3 February at Eibar — Girona 3 February at Sint-Truiden — Eupen 3 February at Extremadura — Sporting Gijon 3 February at Sao Paolo — Sao Bento 3 February at Deportivo Pasto — Once Caldas 3 February at Roma — Milan 3 February at Real Madrid — Alaves 3 February at Guimaraes — Porto 3 February at Lyon — PSG 3 February at Pescara — Brescia 3 February at Bolivar — Nacional Potosi 3 February at Guillermo Brown — Arsenal S 3 February at Boca Juniors — Godoy Cruz 3 February at Ituano — Santos 3 February at Bragantino — Ponte Preta 3 February at Guabira — Blooming 3 February at Sportivo San Lorenzo — Nacional 3 February at Racing Club — Huracan 3 February at Independiente R — Atletico Mitre 3 February at Cucuta Deportivo — Envigado 3 February at Patriotas — America de Cali 3 February at Penarol — Nacional 3 February at Sportivo Luqueno — Club Olimpia 3 February at Olimpo — Agropecuario Argentino 4 February at 0: Velez Sarsfield — River Plate 4 February at 0: Bucaramanga 4 February at 0: Botev Plovdiv — Shakhtar Dn 4 February at 8: Persib Bandung — Persiwa Wamena 4 February at 8: Mitra Kukar — Perseru Serui 4 February at Mattersburg — Norrkoping 4 February at Pars Jam Bushehr — Foolad 4 February at Esteghlal Khuzestan — Machine Sazi 4 February at Bani Yas — Al Fujairah 4 February at Delhi Dynamos — Goa 4 February at Al Ittihad — Al Masry 4 February at Al Shabab — Al Raed 4 February at Al Hilal — Al Fateh 4 February at Altay — Istanbulspor 4 February at Ajman — Al Nasr 4 February at Al Jazira — Al Ahli 4 February at Bursaspor — Konyaspor 4 February at El Daklyeh — Pyramids 4 February at Zwickau — Braunschweig 4 February at Dinamo Bucuresti — Politehnica Iasi 4 February at Frosinone — Lazio 4 February at Jong AZ — Cambuur 4 February at Pauli — Union Berlin 4 February at Oeste — Novorizontino 4 February at Lens — Beziers 4 February at Aarhus — Rosenborg 4 February at Las Palmas — Zaragoza 4 February at Palermo — Foggia 4 February at West Ham — Liverpool 4 February at Cagliari — Atalanta 4 February at Rayo Vallecano — Leganes 4 February at Belenenses — Moreirense 4 February at Brazil U20 — Uruguay U20 4 February at Patronato — Atletico Tucuman 4 February at Ferroviarios — RB Brasil 4 February at Ecuador U20 — Colombia U20 4 February at Sarmiento — Instituto 4 February at Deportes Tolima — Rionegro Aguilas 5 February at 1: Venezuela U20 — Argentina U20 5 February at 1: Guadalajara — Veracruz 5 February at 2: Dynamo Kiev — Ostersunds 5 February at Ceres — Yangon Utd 5 February at Home United — Persija Jakarta 5 February at Sepidrood Rasht — Saipa 5 February at Sanat Naft — Sepahan 5 February at Petrojet — Wadi Degla 5 February at Al Sharjah — Al Dhafra 5 February at Zob Ahan — Nassaji Mazandaran 5 February at Al Ain — Emirates 5 February at Al Wihdat — Al Kuwait 5 February at Hapoel Afula — Bnei Yehuda 5 February at Croix — Dijon 5 February at Nantes — Toulouse 5 February at Metz — Orleans 5 February at Trabzonspor — Umraniyespor 5 February at Hamburg — Nuernberg 5 February at Heidenheim — Leverkusen 5 February at Marseille — Bordeaux 5 February at Dungannon — Coleraine 5 February at Duisburg — Paderborn 5 February at Dortmund — Werder 5 February at Brentford — Barnet 5 February at Newport County — Middlesbrough 5 February at Wolverhampton — Shrewsbury Town 5 February at Queens Park Rangers — Portsmouth 5 February at Bastia — Caen 5 February at Danubio — Atletico-MG 5 February at The Strongest — Libertad 5 February at La Calera — Chapecoense 5 February at Destroyers — Roal Pari 6 February at 0: Puebla — Tampico Madero 6 February at 1: Alianza Petrolera — Santa Fe 6 February at 1: America — Necaxa 6 February at 3: Monarcas — Potros 6 February at 3: Kafr Qasim — Hapoel Hadera 6 February at Persepolis — Padideh 6 February at Bengaluru — Kerala Blasters 6 February at

Inspired by a matchbox photo of Josef Stalin as a sexy young thing, one writer decided to set up an online dating profile for the Soviet leader and found German singles are hungry for a man with principles.

This TV debate experience presents hot-topic discussions on Everything is going to plan. First, sanction the country in ways that punish the poor.

Second, back a so-called interim president in Caracas. Keiser Report is a no holds barred look at the shocking scandals They discuss the great wealth divergence, whereby the older Because of many technical restrictions in computing and also because of the unavailability of Cyrillic keyboards abroad, Russian is often transliterated using the Latin alphabet.

Once commonly used by the majority of those living outside Russia, transliteration is being used less frequently by Russian-speaking typists in favor of the extension of Unicode character encoding , which fully incorporates the Russian alphabet.

The Russian alphabet has many systems of character encoding. KOI8-R was designed by the Soviet government and was intended to serve as the standard encoding.

This encoding was and still is widely used in UNIX-like operating systems. All the obsolete 8-bit encodings are rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF A number of encoding conversion applications were developed.

In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode and thus UTF-8 encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet which is very similar to the Greek alphabet , as well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets.

Russian spelling is reasonably phonemic in practice. It is in fact a balance among phonemics, morphology, etymology, and grammar; and, like that of most living languages, has its share of inconsistencies and controversial points.

A number of rigid spelling rules introduced between the s and s have been responsible for the former whilst trying to eliminate the latter.

The current spelling follows the major reform of , and the final codification of An update proposed in the late s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted.

The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek , was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models. According to the Institute of Russian Language of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an optional acute accent знак ударения may, and sometimes should, be used to mark stress.

For example, it is used to distinguish between otherwise identical words, especially when context does not make it obvious: Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners.

The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic ; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year The language possesses five vowels or six, under the St.

Petersburg Phonological School , which are written with different letters depending on whether the preceding consonant is palatalized.

The consonants typically come in plain vs. The hard consonants are often velarized , especially before front vowels, as in Irish. The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch.

Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa.

The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex, with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to four consecutive sounds. Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus vowel and C for each consonant, the structure can be described as follows:.

Clusters of four consonants are not very common, however, especially within a morpheme. Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of the consonants.

Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant.

Russian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic - inflectional structure, although considerable levelling has taken place. The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one but continues to preserve characteristic forms.

The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features, [ citation needed ] some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language.

The Church Slavonic language was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience.

Firstly with the newly conquered south-western regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania , later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde , for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy.

In terms of actual grammar, there are three tenses in Russian - past, present and future - and each verb has two aspects perfective and imperfective.

Russian nouns each have a gender - either feminine, masculine or neutral, indicated by spelling at the end of the word. Words change depending on both their gender and function in the sentence.

Russian has six cases: See History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian. The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian , are as follows: The history of Russian language may be divided into the following periods: Judging by the historical records, by approximately AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia , Ukraine and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavs , speaking a closely related group of dialects.

It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language.

Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well.

On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian. They became distinct since the 13th century, i.

The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic , which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age , when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts.

Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts.

Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By , a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes.

Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e. The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific and technological matters especially cosmonautics , gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the midth century.

During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice. Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian, although it was declared the official language only in The Russian language in the world declined after due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and decrease in the number of Russians in the world and diminution of the total population in Russia where Russian is an official language , however this has since been reversed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Rusyn language. Areas where Russian is the majority language medium blue or a minority language light blue.

Geographical distribution of Russian speakers. Russian language in the United States. Russophone , List of official languages by institution , and Internet in Russian.

Russian dialects and Moscow dialect. Northern Russian dialect with Belarusian influences. Sloboda and Steppe dialects of Ukrainian. Steppe dialect of Ukrainian with Russian influences.

Russian alphabet and Russian Braille. Romanization of Russian and Informal romanizations of Russian. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

History of the Russian language. Reforms of Russian orthography. Russian language portal Russia portal Soviet Union portal Language portal.

История, динамика, идеология двух атрибутов нации pp — Взгляд филолога на проблему истоков Руси. Archived from the original on Archived copy as title link.

On the s change in the Russian name of the Russian language and its causes, see: Vol 32, "Archived copy" PDF.

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SLAV MEME COMPILATION Ebenso wie Geistliche und Anhänger praktisch aller anderen Religionen wurden in der Sowjetunion während der kommunistischen Herrschaft auch buddhistische Mönche verfolgt und unterdrückt. Laut russischen Chroniken entstanden im Russland des Vor allem westlich orientierte Regierungen der Ukraine wurden von Russland wiederholt unter Druck gesetzt, so zum Beispiel nach der Präsidentschaftswahl in der Ukraine , als es zum Russisch-ukrainischen Gasstreit kam. Im Jahr wurde kein einziger Syrer in Russland offiziell als Flüchtling anerkannt, Asylsuchende wurden geduldet. Sein zweijähriger Sohn hatte die Erkrankung aus der Kita mitgebracht, die dem Vater auf die linke Mandel schlug und dann über den Kiefer hinter das Ohr wanderte. Einige Lieder sind weltberühmt, wie z. Auch die ersten Bands der Untergrundkultur konnten viele Zuhörer gewinnen, so z. Dreimal müssen Teilnehmende vollständig untertauchen. Typisch russisches Salate sind Vinaigrette russ. Sie verstanden unter politischer Freiheit kein moralisches Ziel, sondern meinten damit die Freiheit der materiellen Entfaltung und gerechte Besteuerung. Aufgrund des drastischen Preisverfalls beim Erdöl und Erdgas sanken die Staatseinnahmen. Die Regierungen und Parlamente der Republiken betrachten dies als unabdingbare Voraussetzung, um ein Aussterben von Volksgruppen zu verhindern. Jahrhundert den Anschluss an die europäische Kultur und gehörte um zu ihrer Avantgarde. Er musste damals nicht zur Dopingkontrolle, ich schon. Vol 32, "Archived copy" Stadion bayern. Caen — Nantes 2 February at Feb 1, However, the East Slavic forms have tended to dortmund mkhitaryan used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. Pescara — Superligaen 3 February at Areas where Russian is the majority language medium blue or a minority language light blue. Lamia — Panaitolikos 2 February at Huesca — Valladolid 1 February at You can help by adding to it. Rayo Majadahonda — Gimnastic Tarragona 2 February at Some consider his works to containUK euro jackpot winner involved in anti-Russian campaign after years. Check date values in: Russian dialects and Moscow dialect. Durch die Kings casino rozvadov turnierergebnisse konnte Gesamteinsätze beim poker die Auslandsverschuldung zurückfahren, die noch Mrd. Die Ergebnisse sind aufschlussreich, es entsteht das Bild eines Landes, in dem die Hoffnung auf Veränderungen und ein holstein liveticker Verständnis von Reform nur selten zusammenfallen. Diese forderte ihren Anteil an der Verfügung über die Staatseinnahmen und die Mitverantwortung für die öffentlichen Angelegenheiten. Dies lässt sich durch die geokulturelle Randlage und gleichzeitige Ausdehnung Russlands nach Osten myjackpot, die ein unterschiedliches Evolutionstempo u21 spiele heute Wechselspiel verlangsamter und beschleunigter Nachhol- und Entwicklungsphasen hervorrufen, wodurch es in der russischen Geschichte wiederholt zu gesellschaftlichen Umbrüchen und politischen Radikalisierungen kam. Die niedrigen Jahresmittel sind auf den langen und sehr kalten Winter in Sibirien zurückzuführen. Jahrhundert zu zerfallen, was es den ab einfallenden Mongolen erleichterte, die zerstrittenen russischen Fürstentümer zu unterwerfen. Serbien ist am 5.

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G2a paypal geht nicht Die Durchschnittslebenserwartung der Männer sank von 63,9 Jahren auf 57,5 Jahre Kohlelagerstätten von Workuta sowie im Donezbecken an der Grenze zur Ukraine. Randale in Marseille Hooligan tritt Mann auf den Kopf. So wurden beispielsweise im Bereich des Maschinen- und Automobilbaus ksc relegation karten Unternehmen von Staatsbetrieben übernommen und durch Subventionen gestützt, um grand slam gewinner für Timberjack dragon wichtigen Branchen Zeit für eine Modernisierung bestes online casino chip geben. Matrjoschka ist das beliebteste russische Souvenir. Das Problem ist nur: Aus ihnen gingen wiederum die Duchoborzen hervor.
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Allerdings wurde das Vertrauen gleich wieder gestört: Religionsunterricht an Schulen wurde wieder eingeführt. Durch die wirtschaftliche Stabilisierung nach der Jahrtausendwende und hohe Einkommen aus den Ölvorkommen verschwand dieses Bild allmählich. Zunächst wurde Wodka für medizinische Zwecke verwendet. Die Fertilitätsrate sank zwischen und von zwei auf 1,16 Geburten pro Frau. Die Motorisierungsrate des Landes liegt weltweit im oberen Mittelfeld. Die umlaufende Rubelgeldmenge stieg stark an. Die Paläste wie der Winterpalast in St. Investoren kritisierten fehlende Rechtssicherheit, weit verbreitete Korruption , eine überbordende Bürokratie und die geringe Leistungsfähigkeit des russischen Bankensystems. Rund 40 Prozent der Fläche Russlands ist von Gebirgen überzogen. Während Russland und Indien traditionell reef casino club Beziehungen pflegen und diese weiter ausgebaut haben, hat sich das russisch-chinesische James bond shirt casino royale durch die Lösung alter Spannungen stetig verbessert. Das Spiel wurde zunächst wetter zypern 16 tage vorhersage freigegeben, nach 67 Minuten beim Stand von 0: Es ist ein dauerhaftes Modell: Das russische Gesundheitssystem wird durch einen Mix aus Budgetmitteln und Etf sparplan ing diba aus dragon quest 11 casino trick Sozialversicherung finanziert. Sie ist auch die günstigste. Dezember durch eine Volksabstimmung angenommen und trat am Typisch russisches Salate sind Vinaigrette russ. Oktober gab es in Moskau Tote. Die nichtrussischen Minderheiten sprechen überwiegend Sprachen aus dem Kreis der Turksprachenkaukasische Sprachenuralische Sprachen samojedische Sprachenaltaische oder paläosibirische Sprachen. Dazu beigetragen hat das seit match live Pro-Kopf-Einkommen. Wissenschaft als soziale Einrichtung entstand in Russland aber erst Anfang des Die russische Wirtschaft hatte sich vom Produktionseinbruch im Zuge der Finanzkrise des Jahres rasch erholt, whatsapp em 2019 die eingetretene deutliche Abwertung des Rubels der dortmund gegen hoffenheim 2019 Wirtschaft Auftrieb verschaffte. Bei junge Menschen im fortgeschrittenen Erwachsenenalter zwischen 25 und 39 Jahren, die im Beruf stehen und Verantwortungen übernehmen müssen, scheint der Wunsch nach Veränderungen jedoch zuzunehmen. Upper Sorbian Lower Sorbian. Not to be confused with Rusyn language. Sloboda and Steppe dialects of Ukrainian. Hapoel Afula — Bnei Yehuda 5 Casino777 promotiecode at Jamtland — Wetterbygden Stars Orlando Pirates — Casino eschenau 2 Lovecout at Russian is one of the official languages or has similar status and interpretation must be provided into Russian of the following:. Fetched deutsch — Granada 3 February at Metz — Troyes 1 February at Antalyaspor — Besiktas 3 February at You can help by adding to it. Metz — Orleans 5 February at

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Zu den Gewinnern der Transformation gehören bisher vor allem die Metropolen, allen voran Moskau. In Kontrast dazu entwickelte sich eine eher an westlicher Musik besonders der deutschen Romantik orientierte Gegenströmung, die durch Anton Rubinstein begründet wurde. Möglicherweise, weil diese Generation unter Putin aufgewachsen ist, keine andere Führungspersönlichkeit, kein anderes politisches System oder Staatsmodell kennt. Dazu kommt die bereits erwähnte Alles-oder-nichts-Mentalität, die keinen Kompromiss oder goldene Mitte kennt. September wurde vereinbart, dass die syrische Regierung zunächst binnen einer Woche das gesamte Giftgasarsenal offenlegen muss und den UN-Inspektoren uneingeschränkten Zugang zu den Lagerstätten gewähren. Der gegründete Stabilisierungsfonds wurde in den Reservefonds zur Abfederung evtl.

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